By the end of this post, the reader should be able to:

·         Explain and give examples of family crisis situations. 

·         Analyze the effects of crisis on the family.   suggest ways families can adjust to crisis.

·         Describe the various types of sexually transmitted diseases/infections.

·         Describe the nature of HIV/AIDS.

·         Explain how HIV/AIDS is and is not contracted.

·         Describe the signs and symptoms of HIV/AIDS.

·         Examine the effects of HIV/AIDS on the individual, the family and the society.

·         Outline ways of preventing HIV/AIDS.

·         Define conflict

·         Describe the causes and effects of conflicts.

·          Suggest ways of resolving conflicts.



A situation or an event which results in a major disorganization of the family system. It marks a point, when things cease to go on as usual. This often affect family relationships, family goals, values and standards. There are different types of family crisis with varying degrees of seriousness. A crisis is therefore a change in the normal way of life of the family.


Examples of Family Crisis Situations

(i) Unplanned or unexpected pregnancy by the wife or teenage daughter leaves the family in crisis and the need for adjustment to be made.

(ii) The arrival of a new baby in a family is normally a joy but it can also be a source of crisis in that

a) The father may feel neglected as the wife now focuses on the baby.

b) Other children may also feel neglected and could be jealous and turn against their mother and this baby.

c) It also means pressure on family income as well as more demand on mother for time and energy.

iii) Events that may result from the behavior of someone in the family such as violence in the family, drunkenness, drug abuse, etc.

iv) Loss of job: A serious crisis results in the family, if a member especially the bread winner loses his job through redundancy, unemployment, dismissal, etc. It means that family needs cannot be met. For instance, the education of children can come to an abrupt end.

v) Loss of family member: Death is a serious crisis, and the death or loss of a family member may shatter the lives of other members. Family members could also be lost through kidnapping. The death of breadwinner e.g., means the loss of hope for children's education.


family crisis

vi) Chronic illness e.g., HIV/AIDS: When a family member is infected with an incurable disease or illness, it results in family crisis because family members cannot look on helplessly whiles one of them is suffering, members would have to sacrifice money and devote time to take care of the sick person. Every member becomes disturbed and worried.

(vii) Financial difficulties: lack of funds or money to buy basic needs of the family, pay or settle hospital bills, utilities and school fees may lead to family crisis.

(viii) Loss of valuables: Events that create hardships e.g., loss of property. A family can lose all their valuable possessions through burglary. It is often difficult to replace these. The result is often crisis.

(ix) Divorce: Is a serious crisis in a family. Broken marriage means broken home. It tears family members apart. The children are the worst hit and it leads to change of hope for them. It can lead to delinquency for children.

(x) Rigid rules: In a family situation where parents set differing standards and rules, a crisis is bound to result. One parent may issue orders which the other may oppose children may find themselves in very difficult situation as they strive to obey parents with opposing standards and rules.

(xi) Clashes in personalities: Clashes in personality profiles of family members can lead to a serious crisis in the family. Individuals differ in their likes and dislikes, reaction to situations and personality profiles. Parents can disagree on certain issues and the result could be serious family problems.

(xii) Abuse by wife or husband.

(xiii) Accidents: Accidents include fire, industrial accidents, road accidents, etc. Accidents can cause incapacitation or hospitalization of a family member. They can lead to serious losses such as loss of house, property and lives.

(xiv) Moving: Moving the family from one location to another or a family member moving out of the family might cause a family crisis. When the family moves to a new location, new challenges such as loss of friendships and the challenges associated with moving to a new location will cause some problems. Additionally, when a family member moves, the support that family member provides to the family is lost and this creates difficulties in the family.

(xv) Differing standards: As standards in the family change, these can cause crisis in the family.

(xvi) Problems at school: Problems such as bullying, negative peer pressure and teacher abuse can cause family crisis.


Effects of Family Crisis

(i) It creates feeling of stress among family members.

(ii) It leads to increased emotions of fear and anger.

(iii) May lead to feeling of uncertainty among family members.

(iv) Family members may feel pressured as they try to look to get out of the crisis situation.

(v) They may also have physical and/or emotional hurt.

(vi) Family members may be over-whelmed to the extent that it may be difficult to look for solutions.

(vii) Social cost; the life style of the people may change. Members will not be able to continue with the kind of life they lived before the crisis, etc. Some members may become depressed and frustrated. The male or men resort to drinking of alcohol.


Ways of Adjusting to Family Crisis

(i) Accept your feelings.

(ii) Plan ahead, that is, prepare for it in advance e.g., the arrival of a new born baby.

(iii) Seek for social support.

(iv) Seek for counselling from pastor or priest or from a professional person.

(v) Talk to others especially trusted extended family members or friends.

(vi) Look for positive ways of dealing with the change and the situation.

(vii) Give support to each other in the family as all go through the crisis.

(vii) Seek help if necessary.

(ix) Initiate effective communication.

(x) Seek counselling from a professional person or a priest.

(xi) Have someone who will listen.

(xii) Deal with the situation.

(xii) Take action.



A disagreement or struggle between two or more people. In a family situation, it is between family members; husband/wife parent/children and siblings. OR A conflict is a struggle between two or more people who disagree. That struggle may be verbal, physical or both. OR A family conflict is a struggle between two or more family members who disagree over issues. Conflicts range from little disagreement between friends, family members to violent battles between enemies.


family conflict

Lack of communication creates a conflict situation


Causes of Conflicts in the Family

(i) Situational factors over daily life: Any situation that dissatisfies people can cause conflict e.g. when a parent or parents show more love or attention to a child and neglects the others. OR When children disobey their parents.

(ii) Financial problems/Money: Conflict could occur when a husband fails to give the wife money for housekeeping or when basic needs of the family could not be met due to lack of money.

(iii) Conflicting roles: Differences in household work or expectations of tasks to individuals in the family may bring about conflict. Conflict situations

may occur or arise when individual roles and lines of authority are not clearly defined.

(iv) Personality factors: Usually over small matters e.g. differences in attitudes, values, personal tastes, mannerisms and habits and behaviors. Some people may be slow and quiet, while others could be fast, noisy and outgoing. These different behavioral patterns can bring   about conflict in the family.

(v) Power factors: These come into play when issues are important to members of the family e.g., who makes decisions? Who has the power over money, children, etc.? Conflicts occur when people feel a need to be in control. Each person will be struggling for power. This can occur between husband and wife, between siblings, etc.

(vi) Communication styles: The absence of channels of communication to enable members of the family express their views and opinions on important family issues            result in conflict.

(vii) Differing standards: When two parents set different standards on a single issue in the home, conflict may arise or it may lead to hot arguments and exchanges in the home. For example, the father may say children should sleep at 9pm and should not watch or view TV except during weekend and mother would say they should go to bed at 10pm and should watch or view TV every day.


Effects of Conflicts

(i) It leads to breakdown in communication.

(ii) Family goals may not be achieved.

(iii) Conflicts results in break down in relationships and may lead to divorce or family break up. That is, conflicts can break up friendships and families.

(iv) Negative emotions arise such as angry frustration, fear, pain, humiliation, sorrow or bitterness etc.

(v) People who are often angry may become ill. Sleeping and eating patterns may be affected. Conflict causes stress. Stress is often linked to ulcers and heart disease.

(vi) Violence may occur. When tempers arise with serious argument, there can be physical attacks. Injury or death may result eventually.


Ways of Resolving Conflicts

(i) Control your feelings

People should not speak when they are angry. They should control their negative emotions until they calm down, this is because speaking when angry might cause one to use words that will hurt other people and thus spark conflict.


(ii) Communicate feelings honestly 

People should communicate their feelings honestly to the person who has offended or hurt them. They should not harbor bad feelings against other members of the family. Effective communication reduces conflict and sustains family relationship. 

(iii) Be prepared to talk over the problem

People should be prepared to talk over or address the problem rather than attack each other. When people involved in the problem sit together to talk over it, it will lead to amicable resolution of the conflict.

(iv) Accept people as they are

People are different in terms of many things. These are differences in values, expectations and attitudes. Members of the family should therefore learn to accept people as they are and live peacefully.

(v) Accept others point of view 

People also think differently and thus will express different point of views or opinions. Learn to accept and accommodate different opinion or other point of views from their members.


Sexually Transmitted Diseases/ Infections (STD'S/STI'S)

Sexually Transmitted Diseases or venereal diseases are diseases which are spread through sexual intercourse. That is, a person contracts such diseases when he/she has sexual intercourse with a person who is infected by any of these diseases. The common examples of STDs are gonorrhea, syphilis and AIDS. Of these, AIDS is the most dangerous.

STDs/STIs are therefore diseases that infect individuals as a result of indulging in sexual acts or affect sex organs.

(i) Syphilis.

(ii) Gonorrhea.

(iii) Chlamydia.

(iv) Hepatitis B.

(v) Genital Herpes.

(vi) Human papillma virus.

(vii) Trichomomas.

(viii) Candida.

(ix) Urinary Tract Infection.


(xii) Chancroid.


A. Syphilis

Syphilis is one of the most dangerous STDs. The micro-organism (spirochaete) or the bacterium that causes this disease is called Treponema pallidum. Symptoms of the disease may appear 10-25 days after having sexual intercourse with an infected person. The symptom of the disease is the appearance of a large but painless ulcer in the penis or on the vulva. The ulcer may sometimes develop on the cervix and hence cannot be noticed. With time (usually between 3 and 8 weeks), the ulcer disappears indicating that it has healed. Within six weeks to six months however, the symptoms re-appear with skin rashes and ulcers in the mouth or in the vulva. This marks the secondary stage of syphilis. The ulcers become highly infectious at this stage.

Signs of the secondary syphilis will with time disappear and re-appear later with larger ulcers on the legs or head and in some cases, blindness, paralysis may occur. Usually, the spirochaete bacterium may remain in he body and can cause damage to the aorta, heart, bones, joints and the central nervous system. This stage marks the formation of tertiary syphilis.


Prevention and Treatment of syphilis

For the prevention of syphilis, people adolescents inclusive should avoid casual and indiscriminate sexual intercourse.

Also, any syphilis-related symptoms should be reported to a medical officer for proper diagnosis and treatment. In the treatment for syphilis, penicillin injections are administered to an infected person to kill all the spirochaetes, especially during the early stage of the disease. However, secondary and tertiary syphilis are best treated with tetracycline.


B. Gonorrhea

This is one of the most common STDs. One contracts it by having sexual intercourse with a person suffering from the disease. Gonorrhea is the commonest STD in Africa Gonorrhea confines itself to the sexual and urinary organs only.


Causes of Gonorrhea

Gonorrhea is caused by a bacterium (germ) called Neisseria gonorrhea, which is contracted through sexual intercourse with partners infected by the disease. Young female children can accidentally get infected by the disease through the use of infected clothes especially, towels and bed cloths. The organism causing gonorrhea, Neisseria gonorrhea or Gonococcus, infects among others, the rectum (part of the terminal) part of the large bowel), pharynx (part of the digestive tract that follows the mouth), and the eyes. Gonorrhea has an incubation period ranging from three to ten days.

The symptoms of the disease begin after 3-5 days of having sexual intercourse with an infected person. The disease can be transmitted during the incubation period


Symptoms of Gonorrhea

Symptoms of the disease show up three to five days after infection in males. There is usually a discharge from the urethra — the tube through which urine passes to the outside. A painful reddened swelling or inflammation of the cervix (the lower part of the womb) and urethra may occur in the case of females. The common symptoms of the disease are urethral discharge with some urethral irritation, burning pain in urinating and difficulty in urinating (dysuria). Females suffering from the disease usually have a creamy or yellow urethral discharge. The opening of the penis in males usually becomes reddened during infection.

Infected women may not show any symptoms at all, even though once in a while there will be some discomfort in the urethra.

Some Complications Associated with Gonorrhea

Gonorrhea is associated with several complications if treatment is not done very well. The complications in males include the accumulation of pus-fluid around the urethral, infections of the epididymis — one of the structures through which sperms pass from the testis to the urethra, prostate gland and seminal vesicle (structures which add some secretion to the sperms before they get to the urethra)

There could be the infections of the fallopian tubes — structures through which fertilized or unfertilized eggs pass to the womb. This infection could lead to the blockage of the fallopian tubes which can result in infertility or sterility. Pain may also be felt in the lower abdomen. The disease can infect the eyes of the baby at birth and cause it to be blind.


Treatment and Preventive or Precautionary Measures Against Gonorrhea

· Any symptom(s) of the disease should be reported to a health worker or medical officer for test and subsequent treatment before any complications set in. Penicillin injections can cure the disease. During treatment, both partners should be treated at the same time.

· People — particularly adolescents should as much as possible, avoid indiscriminate sexual intercourse.   A condom should be used if one is not sure whether or not his/her partner has the disease.

· People — adolescents need to be educated on the disease and the significance of the practice of safe sex.


C. Chlamydia

Chlamydia is a disease caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis. It is most commonly sexually transmitted.

Causes of Chlamydia

Chlamydia infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease around the world. Sexually active individuals and individuals with multiple partners are at highest risk.


Symptoms of Chlamydia

As many as 1 in 4 men with chlamydia have no symptoms. In men, chlamydia may produce symptoms similar to gonorrhea. Symptoms may include: burning sensation during urination, discharge from the penis or rectum, testicular tenderness or pain, rectal discharge or pain.

Only about 30% of women with chlamydia have symptoms. Symptoms that may occur in women include: burning sensation during urination, painful sexual intercourse, rectal pain or discharge and vaginal discharge.


Treatment of Chlamydia

The usual treatment for chlamydia is antibiotics, including tetracyclines, azithromycin, or erythromycin.

You can get chlamydia with gonorrhea or syphilis, so if you have one sexually transmitted disease you must be screened for other sexually transmitted diseases as well. All sexual contacts should be screened for chlamydia.

Sexual partners must be treated to prevent passing the infection back and forth. There is no significant immunity following the infection and a person may become repeatedly infected.


D. Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the liver due to infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV).


Causes of Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B infection is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). You can catch hepatitis B through contact with the blood or body fluids (such as semen, vaginal fluids, and saliva) of a person who has the virus. It may be spread through kissing or sexual intercourse.


Symptoms of Hepatitis B

After you first become infected with the hepatitis B virus, you may have no symptoms or you may feel sick for a period of days or weeks or you may become very ill very quickly (called fulminant hepatitis).

Symptoms of hepatitis B may not appear for up to 6 months after the time of infection. Early symptoms include appetite loss, fatigue, low fever, muscle and joint aches, nausea and vomiting and yellow skin and dark urine.

Symptoms will go away in a few weeks to months if your body is able to fight off the infection. Some people never get rid of the hepatitis B virus. This is called chronic hepatitis B.

People with chronic hepatitis may not have symptoms and not know they are infected. Over time, they may develop symptoms of liver damage and cirrhosis of the liver.

You can spread the hepatitis B virus to other people even if you have no symptoms.


Treatment of Hepatitis B

Acute hepatitis needs no treatment other than careful monitoring of liver and other body functions with blood tests. You should get plenty of bed rest, drink plenty of fluids, and eat healthy foods.

Some patients with chronic hepatitis may be treated with antiviral medications or a medication called peginterferon. These medications can decrease or remove hepatitis B from the blood and reduce the risk of cirrhosis and liver cancer. It is not always clear which patients with chronic hepatitis B should receive drug therapy and when drug therapy should be started. You are more likely to receive these medicines if your liver function is becoming worse quickly or if you develop symptoms of long-term liver damage or if you have high levels of the hepatitis B virus in your blood

If you develop rapid liver failure, you may need a liver transplant. A liver transplant is the only cure in some cases of liver failure.


E. Genital Herpes

Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV).


Causes of Genital herpes

Genital herpes affects the skin or mucous membranes of the genitals. It caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). HSV is spread from one person to another during sexual contact. You may become infected with herpes if your skin, vagina, penis, or mouth comes into contact with someone who already has herpes.

You are most likely to get herpes if you touch the skin of someone who has herpes sores, blisters, or a rash. However, the herpes virus can still be spread even when no sores or other symptoms are present. Sometimes, the person does not even know they are infected.


Symptoms of Genital herpes

Many people with genital herpes never have sores, or they have very mild symptoms that go unnoticed or are mistaken for insect bites or another skin condition.

If signs and symptoms do occur during the first outbreak, they can be quite severe. This first outbreak usually happens within 2 days to 2 weeks of being infected.


General symptoms may include:

·         Decreased appetite

·         Fever

·         General sick feeling (Malaise)

·         Muscle aches in the lower back, buttocks, thighs, or knees

·         Swollen and tender lymph nodes in the groin during an outbreak


Genital symptoms include the appearance of small, painful blisters filled with clear or straw-colored fluid. They are usually found:

·         In women: on the outer vaginal lips (labia), vagina, cervix, around the anus, and on the thighs or buttocks

·         In men: on the penis, scrotum, around the anus, on the thighs or buttocks

·         In both sexes: on the tongue, mouth, eyes, gums, lips, fingers, and other parts of the body

·         Before the blisters appear, the person may feel the skin tingling, burning, itching, or have pain at the site where the blisters will appear

·         When the blisters break, they leave shallow ulcers that are very painful. These ulcers eventually crust over and slowly heal over 7 - 14 days or more


Treatment of Genital herpes

Genital herpes cannot be cured. However, antiviral medication can relieve pain and discomfort during an outbreak by healing the sores more quickly. Medicines used to treat herpes include acyclovir, famciclovir, and valacyclovir.


F. Human Papillomavirus

Genital human papillomavirus (also called HPV) is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI). There are more than 40 types of HPV that can infect the genital areas of males and females. These HPV types can also infect the mouth and throat.

HPV can cause serious health problems, including genital warts and certain cancers. In most cases HPV goes away by itself before it causes any health problems, and most people who become infected with HPV do not even know they have it.


Causes of Human Papillomavirus

Anyone who is having (or has ever had) sex can get HPV. HPV is so common that nearly all sexually-active men and women get it at some point in their lives. This is true even for people who only have sex with one person in their lifetime.

HPV is passed on through genital contact, most often during vaginal and anal sex. HPV may also be passed on during oral sex and genital-to-genital contact.


Symptoms of Human Papillomavirus

Most people with HPV never develop symptoms or health problems. Most HPV

infections (90%) go away by themselves within two years. But, sometimes, HPV infections will persist and can cause a variety of serious health problems. Health problems that can be caused by HPV include genital warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, of cervical cancer.


Treatment of Human Papillomavirus

There is no treatment for the virus itself, but there are treatments for the health problems that HPV can cause. People can lower their chances of getting HPV by taking HPV vaccines.



G. Trichomoniasis

Trichomoniasis (or "trich") is caused by infection with a protozoan parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis. Although symptoms of the disease vary, most women and men who have the parasite cannot tell they are infected.


Causes of Trichomoniasis

The parasite is passed from an infected person to an uninfected person during sex. In women, the most commonly infected part of the body is the lower genital tract (vulva, vagina, or urethra), and in men, the most commonly infected body part is the inside of the penis (urethra). During sex, the parasite is usually transmitted from a penis to a vagina, or from a vagina to a penis


Symptoms of Trichomoniasis

About 70% of infected people do not have any signs or symptoms. When trichomoniasis does cause symptoms, they can range from mild irritation to severe inflammation. Some people with symptoms get them within 5 to 28 days after being infected, but others do not develop symptoms until much later. Symptoms can come and go.

Men with trichomoniasis may feel itching or irritation inside the penis, burning after urination or ejaculation, or some discharge from the penis.

Women with trichomoniasis may notice itching, burning, redness or soreness of the genitals, discomfort with urination, or a thin discharge with an unusual smell that can be clear, white, yellowish, or greenish.

Having trichomoniasis can make it feel unpleasant to have sex. Without treatment, the infection can last for months or even years.


Treatment of Trichomoniasis

Trichomoniasis can be cured with a single dose of prescription antibiotic medication (either metronidazole or tinidazole), pills which can be taken by mouth. People who have been treated for trichomoniasis can get it again.


H. Candida

Candidiasis is an infection caused by a yeastlike fungus called Candida albicans. It can infect the mouth, vagina, skin, stomach, and urinary tract. About 75% of women will get a vaginal yeast infection during their lifetime, and 90% of all people with HIV/AIDS develop candida infections. Oral infections, called oral thrush, are most common in infants, elderly people, and those with a weakened immune system.


Causes of Candida

Normal amounts of candida live in the mouth, stomach, and vagina, and do not cause infections. Candidiasis occurs when there is an overgrowth of candida. Causes may include taking certain drugs, pregnancy, being over weight, having a bacterial infection, or several different health conditions.


Symptoms of Candida

Symptoms of candidiasis may include:   Creamy white patches in the mouth or  on the throat (oral thrush)

·    Painful cracks at the corners of the mouth (oral thrush)

·    Skin rashes, patches, and blisters found most commonly in the groin, between fingers and toes, and under the breasts

·  Vaginal itching and irritation with a white discharge resembling cottage cheese (vaginal yeast infection)


Treatment of Candida

Many antifungal medications can treat candidiasis. Most treatments last from 2 - 3 days to 2 weeks. For severe candidiasis that could be life threatening to someone with a weak immune system, a doctor may prescribe an intravenous (IV) medication, amphotericin B.



Human Immune Deficiency Virus AIDS — Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Nature of HIV/AIDS: It is a severe disruption of the body's immune system caused by viral infection of the white blood cells which are needed to initiate the body's immune responses.

The virus invades and kills the cells of the immune system, that the body is not able to defend itself against many infections. HIV can live in the body for many years before it can develop into AIDS.

(i) A person who gets AIDS has only 50 per cent chance of living more than three years.

(ii) Many AIDS patients die of what is called opportunistic diseases/infections such as tuberculosis, pneumonia, cancer and other sexually transmitted infections or STDs.


How HIV/AIDS is contracted

AIDS is spread through the following:

(i) Having sexual intercourse with a person infected with the disease or the HIV virus.

(ii) From a pregnant mother to her baby during pregnancy and after birth through breast feeding

(iii) Through blood transfusion when the donor's blood is infected by the disease or the HIV virus.

(iv) Sharing syringes with an infected person. This is mostly associated with intravenous drug abusers.

(v) Sharing tooth brushes, shaving sticks, blades and other cutting instruments that can pierce the skin with other people (particularly those infected by the disease or the HIV virus)

(vi) Health personnel getting in touch with the blood of HIV/AIDS patients.


Ways Through Which HIV/AIDS Cannot be Spread

It is important to note that HIV/AIDS cannot be spread through the following:

(i) It cannot be spread through social contact such as handshakes, living together, playing together and eating together.

(ii) It cannot be spread through the use of cups that have been used by infected people.

(iii) HIV/AIDS cannot be spread through the bites of insects.

(iv) It is not spread through the use of the same toilet facilities with an infected person.

(v) It is not spread through the sharing of the same swimming pool with infected people.

(vi) HIV or AIDS is not spread through coughing and sneezing.

(vii) Touching, hugging, sharing, meals, mosquito bites, food handled by carriers. E.g. eating together.


Signs and Symptoms of HIV

The following are some of the symptoms of AIDS:

(i) Loss of more than 10% body weight

(ii) Chronic diarrhea for more than one month

(iii) Prolonged fever for more than one month associated with a temperature of more than 380C

(iv) Persistent cough for more than one month

(v) Persistent swollen lymph glands.

(vi Skin rashes or disease

(vii) Increasing tiredness and fatigue

(viii) Unexpected tiredness

(ix) Sores on the body and mouth

(x) Sore throat

(xi) Headaches


Effects of HIV on Individuals

(i) Poor health resulting in loss of job. (ii) Loss of self-esteem and respect.

(iii) Sense of shame and stigmatization.

(iv) Day to day living changes because of loss of income.

(v) Face endless medical expenses.

(vi) Discrimination concerning housing, employment, etc.

(vii) Death.


Effects of HIV on the family

(i) Economic hardship especially if the one infected is the breadwinner.

(ii) Stigmatization of the family.

(iii) Loss of a family member through death.

(iv) Family breakdown.


Effects of HIV on Society 

(i) Loss of human resources especially those in their productive years.

(ii) Burden on society especially the economy when society must continue to provide medical services for them.

(iii) Agencies and institutions are set up to work and care for those infected with HIV/AIDS.


Ways of Preventing HIV/AIDS

It is important to note that AIDS has no medical cure and no vaccine has been developed to prevent the disease. In the light of this, the only effective way to avoid the disease is to fully understand the mechanisms of its methods of spread and try as much as possible to avoid the risk of being infected by the disease. AIDS can be prevented through the following practical ways:

(i) Sticking to only one faithful sex partner and avoiding casual sex.

(ii) Using condoms during all casual sex

(iii) Using only new sterile disposable syringes and always having injections at only recognized health institutions.

(iv) Avoiding the sharing of tooth brushes, shaving sticks, blades and other cutting instruments that can pierce the skin with other people.

(v) Testing and screening of all donated blood before all blood transfusion.

(vi) Avoiding sex with prostitutes.

(vii) Sexual abstinence for the unmarried.

(viii) Careful selection of sex partner.

(ix) Learn to say "NO" to sex.

(x) Avoid tattooing.

(xi) Avoid drugs and alcohol.


K. Chancroid

Chancroid is a bacterial infection that is spread only through sexual contact.

Causes of Chancroid

Chancroid is caused by a type of bacteria called Haemophilus ducreyi. The infection is found mainly in developing and third world countries.

Symptoms of Chancroid

Within 1 day - 2 weeks after getting chancroid, a person will get a small bump in the genitals. The bump becomes an ulcer within a day of its appearance. The ulcer:

·         Is painful

·         Is soft e

·         Has sharply defined borders

·         Has a base that is covered with a grey or yellowish-grey material

·         Has a base that bleeds easily if it is banged or scraped

About half of infected men have only a single ulcer. Women often have four or more ulcers. The ulcers appear in specific locations. Common locations in men are:

·         Foreskin

·         Groove behind the head of the penis

·         Shaft of the penis  

·         Head of the penis

·         Opening of the penis

·         Scrotum

In women the most common location for ulcers is the outer lips of the vagina (labia majora). "Kissing ulcers" may develop.  These are ulcers that occur on opposite surfaces of the labia.

Other areas, such as the inner vagina lips (labia minora), the area between the genitals and the anus (perineal area), and the inner thighs may also be involved. The most common symptoms in women are pain with urination and intercourse.


Treatment of Chancroid

The infection is treated with antibiotics, including azithromycin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and erythromycin. Large lymph node swellings need to be drained, either with a needle or local surgery.


SCCE, WASSCE Past Questions and Answers on Family Crisis (Management in Living)

1. (a) What is family crisis?

A family crisis is a situation that marks a turning point, when things cease to go on as usual in the family


(b) List six crisis that can occur in family

(i) Birth or arrival of a new baby

(ii) Clashes of personality

(iii) Death

(iv) Accident

(v) Divorce / separation

(vi) Illness

(vii) Relocation of family

(viii) Loss of job / employment

(ix) Problems at school

(x)  Financial problems

(c) Describe five effects that crisis may have on the family.

(i) Arrival of a new baby: Father may feel neglected, children may also feel neglected and jealous, there will be pressure on family resources and it also means more demand on the mother's time and energy.

(ii) Loss or death of a family member: Death of a loved one or bread winner can cause severe emotional shock. It may shatter the lives of other family members. The death of the bread winner could mean loss of hope for children's education

(iii) Accidents and illnesses: A serious illness or accident can greatly disrupt family life. Family members feel worried and upset to see someone they love suffer. They feel helpless and frustrated. Prolong illness or accident can also take a lot of family Income or resources.

(iv) Divorce: Divorce has negative effects on husbands, wives and children. It can cause change of address, job, problems of discipline among children, change of status and decrease in family resources.

(v) Loss of job /employment:  This could be the result of unexpected retirement, retrenchment, redundancy, etc.


3. (a) Explain the term conflict resolution.

The term conflict resolution means bringing an end to misunderstanding, quarrels and struggles. OR It means bringing about some agreement or settlement between two persons, families or communities who are at war, whose aims or interests clash. The ultimate aim of conflict resolution is peace.



l. a. What is family crisis?

b. Explain any five family crisis situations

2. State five effects and five ways of adjusting to family crisis.

3. a. List five sexually transmitted diseases

b. Explain the causes, symptoms and treatment of any one sexually transmitted disease mentioned in (a) above.

4. Mention and explain five ways through which HIV/AIDS cannot be spread

5. In what five ways can HIV/AIDS be prevented?

6. a. What is the term conflict resolution?

b. Explain five causes of conflict in the home.

c. Explain five ways to resolving conflict in the family.

d. State three effects of conflict on the family.


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