This post, provide reader with the following objective;  readers should be able to:

•  Explain the concept and scope of Management in Living.

•  Describe the importance of Management in Living.

•  Identify the opportunities for careers in Management in Living.

 •  Describe signs of reproductive growth in adolescents.

•  Examine the consequences of the reproductive growth of the adolescent   

•  Examine the social, emotional, mental growth, and changes that take place in the adolescent.

•  Explain menstrual cycle and menstruation in girls and its implications.



In everyday living, individuals and families require certain things such as good food, clothing, shelter, medical care, education and transport. In order to satisfy these needs, the individuals and families require resources such as, money, energy, time, etc.

management in living

In living, management is involved in every aspect of life e.g., the problem of feeding clothing and the use of income are all matters of management. These resources are scarce or limited and thus there is the need for individuals and families to make decisions.


Individuals and families have life goals. The decisions these individuals and families make on daily basis as they go through life to achieve these goals is referred to as management in living.

Management in living is therefore concerned with decisions individuals and families make as they go through life to achieve their life goals OR Management in living is concerned with the decisions individuals and families make in their life process in order to achieve their goals.




Since individuals and families need are varied or wide in scope, the study of management in living covers a wide area such as

I. Marriage and family living,

II. Family housing and housing environment,

III. Adolescents related issues,

IV. Financial management for future financial security,

V. Consumer education and consumer skills.


i. It helps individuals and families to learn how to use their limited resources wisely so as to satisfy as many of their needs as possible.

ii. It contributes to the understanding of issues that affect family and family living. Knowledge acquired in management in living will help individuals and families identify such issues and deal with them. Thus, making family life and living better and more comfortably.

iii. It helps individuals and families to develop skills for living. Skills individuals acquire through management in living include resource management, child care, cleaning and financial management. These skills so acquired will help make living comfortable, safe and simple.

iv. It also provides the basis for further training for job opportunities. Individuals who acquire knowledge in management in living could go for further training to become professional teachers, credit advisors, interior decorators, housekeepers, etc.

v. It helps individuals and families appreciate and recognize the relationship between daily living and the environment in which they live, that is both family and the wider environment


The main objective of management in living is to help individuals and families develop skills for living and to equip students for job opportunities or careers, some of which may require higher education. These careers include:

i. Teaching: Teachers in this area, teach home management, family living and child development in schools. With additional training in home management, graduates can teach in nursery schools. So those who study management in living can be employed to teach.

ii. Interior decoration / Designing: People in this area, plan and decorate interiors of homes, hotels, hospitals, offices, etc. The study of Management in living can therefore help individuals become interior decorators.

management in living

iii. Child care: People in this area work in Child Care Centers. These centers are where parents bring their children for care while they are busy. This has led to the establishment of preschools in almost all cities and towns in Ghana.

iv. Financial counseling: Individuals who study management in living can become financial counsellors counseling individuals and families to manage their income and live within their means and avoid needless expenditure.

v. Dry cleaning and laundering: The dry cleaners and launderers, dry-clean and launder clothing articles for people. A home economics graduate can earn a living by setting up a laundry and/or dry-cleaning service.

management in living

vi. Child development specialist.

vii. Work in the housing development sector.

viii. Credit advisors: It also helps people to become Credit advisors in financial institutions and consumer credit companies.

 ix. Nursery school attendants: With further training, the senior high school graduate of home management can become a nursery school attendant.

x. Environment management counseling: Counseling people on how to live a good, healthy and happy life by maintaining and adhering to good environmental practices.


1.  Explain the concept and scope of management in living

2.  Identify and explain areas in management in living for which careers may be developed

3.  Describe the importance of management in living

4.  State four areas or scope of management in living

5.  Discuss the career opportunities in Management in living




The sex of a person refers to whether that person is male or female. It also stands for sexual intercourse between a male and female. Sexuality on the other hand has to do with how we see ourselves as boys and girls, men and women, that is being aware of yourself as a sexual being as well as how we feel and think about our body.


Some Aspects of Sexuality

(i) Love and affection:  This is how individuals express their love and affection for others.

(ii) Intimacy: This is close sharing of feelings or thoughts which are not necessarily physical.

(iii) Relationships:  These are the different ways individuals express their feelings to others.

(iv) Gender Roles:  This refers to the different ways individuals express their sex as male and female.

(v) Genitals:  This refers to the physical parts of our body that define sex and are also important on sexual pleasure and reproduction.

(vi) Body images: This is about how individuals look and feel about themselves and how they appear to others.

(vii) Social roles: The role of people plays as part of a social group.

(viii) Sexual arousal: Involves a number of different things that make us get sexually turned on.

Meaning of Adolescence

Adolescence is the period of growing up. It is that stage in every person's life that lies between the end of childhood and the beginning of adulthood. This period of development is between the ages of 10-19 years. It is a period of preparation for becoming a parent, and a citizen. It has been described as a storm much longer and much darker in some cases than in others through which all must pass.


Adolescence is therefore a period of transition, growth, exploration and opportunities. It is also marked by changes in the body, the mind, the emotions, and the social attitudes. People within the stage of adolescence experience rapid physical and behavioral changes at puberty.

Puberty is the stage during which the adolescent grows into a man or woman. That is, it is a narrow span of time which marks the beginning of sexual maturation.

Adolescent is a boy or girl who is passing through the adolescence period. The period is marked with body and emotional changes.

Reproductive Growth and Development 

The early part of adolescence is a stage of heightened emotions. The transition from childhood to adolescence is often associated with physical, emotional and social changes.

Physical Changes in Male and Females and Behavioral Changes in Adolescence 

Changes that Occur During Adolescence.

The transition from childhood to adolescence


Physical Changes in Boys 

The physical changes that occur in boys during adolescence include:

i. The sex organs develop into maturity. That is, they experience growth or enlargement of the testes and penis.

ii. They experience rapid growth in height, weight and increase muscle mass.

iii. They grow facial and body hair. That is, they begin to grow hair on the armpits, pubic areas and other parts of the body.

iv.  They experience enlargement of the chest, long legs and arms and stronger muscles.

v. They also experience the break of the voice. That is, they develop larger vocal cords and deep voice.

vi. They may experience involuntary ejaculations or erections during sleep (they may have wet dreams). Wet dreams mean they wake up to find their genital areas wet as a result of discharges from their penis.


Physical Changes in Girls 

Physical changes that occur in girls during adolescence include:

i. Development of breast. That is their breast begin to appear 

ii. It is during this period that the rounding out of figure occurs. They therefore develop flattened stomach, slimy waist and wider hips.

iii. On-set of menstrual cycle

iv. Rapid growth in height and weight

v. Development or maturing of sex organs

vi. Growth of hair on armpits and pubic areas vii. Broadening of hips.

vii. Clitoris and labia increase in size.

ix. Development of sweat glands

x. Nipples become larger and darker

changes that occur in adolescence

Physical Changes that are Common to Both Male and Females (Boys and Girls)

The physical changes that are common to both male and female during adolescence include:

i. Growth in height and weight

ii. Maturation of reproductive system or organs

iii. Redistribution of body weight

iv. The appearance of the secondary sex characteristics.


Consequence of the Reproductive Growth of the Adolescents

i. Adolescents become conscious of their bodies or appearance. While some become excited about the changes in their physical appearance e.g., appearance of breast, some are often very shy.

ii. Boys get wet dreams. Occasionally, they imagine themselves in bed with girls they seem to be strongly attached to and thus lead to wet dreams.

iii. They get attracted to the opposite sex. They begin to be interested in members of the opposite sex and begin to enter into relationships. They develop emotional attachment to the opposite sex.

iv. General interactions. Adolescents begin to feel the desire to associate or socialize with his or her peers either at home or school or in the neighborhood.

v. They have the capacity to reproduce.

vi. They have heightened sex drive as a result of hormonal secretions and actions.


vii. Hormonal actions lead to development of body odors, eczema, pimples etc.

Consequence of the Reproductive Growth of the Adolescents

Good Hygiene for the Adolescent 

i. Adolescents should bath regularly, at least twice a day to wash away perspiration that comes out of the pores.

ii.  Adolescent should not squeeze pimples but rather wash their face with mild soap. They should not bleach to get rid of pimples because the chemicals used for bleaching are dangerous to the skin.

iii. Shave or trim pubic hair and armpit hair to prevent the development of bad smell and from trapping sweat.

iv. They should always wear clean under garment to avoid or prevent bacteria from multiplying and causing diseases on their bodies.



Social Changes 

1. Interact differently from when they were younger. They begin to talk like adults. They begin to question their parent's authority as they strive for independence. They think they are adults and can therefore manage their own affairs.

2. They feel shy. Some of the girls feel shy about their physical development and appearance e.g., development of breast and menstruation. The boys have to cope with changes in their voice, bigger penis and testicles and the discharge of semen.

3. Drawn more to peer groups of their own age. Adolescence are very concerned about impressions they make on their peers. They attempt to gain popularity and become a member of a prestigious group. Opportunities should be provided for the interaction by the family and other social institutions e.g., school, church etc.

4. They become aware of themselves and begin to ask for the advice of other adults, teachers, neighbors, friends etc.

5. Expected to take more responsibilities at home and school. At home, they are expected to clean the house, wash father's clothes, water the garden, etc. They should be encouraged to participate in   domestic chores.


Emotional Changes

The adolescent begins to experience heightened feelings and may be very sensitive and reacts strongly to events. Emotions such as love, fear, hatred, anger, joy and frustration are strong.

i. He/she may experience a variety of the human feelings e.g., sadness, embarrassment if teased, intense happiness, need for companionship may become intense.

ii. There may be an increase in sexual awareness and urge.

iii. Adolescents may be aggressive, become antagonistic to authority and defensive about their own actions.

iv. Adolescents’ attention shifts to their peers and boyfriends or girlfriends.

v.  Adolescent experiment especially with their sexuality.

Mental Changes 

i. Adolescents begin to reason and think in more abstract terms.

ii. Ready to test new ideas and think through things for themselves

iii. Begin to make realistic plans

iv. May think of consequences of actions they may take

v. Develop the ability to reflect on the results of their decisions and learn from the


vi. Tend to reason more and analyze suggestions from others.

Problems / Challenges of Adolescence

These challenges are problems which adolescents often face. Adolescents are neither children nor adults. They often have problems as they relate to their parents and other people. Their challenges include:


1. Adjustment: They have problems adjusting to their physical changes. For instance, the girl has to cope with enlarged breast and menstruation. The boys cope with changes of voice and bigger penis. They are often uncomfortable, clumsy and anxious.

2. Status: They want to behave like adults, yet they are not fully adults. Boys may try to smoke and girls may try putting on make-ups.

Problems or Challenges of Adolescence

3. Independence: Adolescents often want to do things their way. They do not like to be directed or guided by parents or other adults. This is often a source of problem.

4. Need for achievement: Adolescents want to excel. When they fail, they become unhappy.

5. Peer pressure: They often want to go along with their peers. There could be negative influences from peer group, for instance, in dressing, feeding and expression of sexuality.

6. Physical needs: These arise as a result of the physical changes going on in the adolescent. These needs include;

i.           Balance food needed for proper development.

ii.         New clothes to replace outgrown or worn-out old ones.

iii.       Girls will need brassiere as their breast develops.

7. Development of strong body odor: Body odor is an unpleasant smell that comes from the body.

8. Indulging in sexual activities, substance abuse and becoming delinquent.


Menstruation: The monthly flow of blood through the birth canal or vaginal passage of a female. Menstruation is nature's way of preparing the female body for pregnancy and child birth.

The process of menstruation i.e., menstrual cycle occurs once each month unless there is pregnancy, illness or when the woman reaches menopause. Menstrual cycle varies for each person (a cycle of 21-30 days).

The release of the ovum is called ovulation which occurs between 12 and 16 days before the next menstrual bleeding. During this period the girl can become pregnant by engaging in sexual intercourse.

The egg normally travels down the womb through the fallopian tubes during which it hopes to be fertilized. It however dies if it is not fertilized within 12-24 hours after ovulation.

Changes occur in the body during menstruation e.g., enlargement of breast, breasts become tender with darkened nipple.

Most girls start their menstrual period between the ages of 10 and 16 and it continues till the age of 40 — 50 years when the woman reaches menopause. The flow of blood last between 3 and 7 days. Some women may have longer or shorter periods.

Menopause is a period where a woman no longer menstruates and is no longer able to get pregnant naturally.

Menstrual Hygiene Practices

Menstrual hygiene practices are very important during menstruation;

i. Use good absorbent sanitary pads or towel and pants. These will prevent your clothes from being stained by blood. 

ii. Change the sanitary pad as often as three times a day to prevent bad odor.

iii.     Wrap the soiled pad in an old newspaper. Put it in a refuse bin or pit toilet or burn it. Do not throw the used pad into the water system or water closet toilet.

iv. Have frequent bath during menstruation. At least bath twice a day. Have local bath of the vulva area each time you change your pad if possible.

Menstrual hygiene practices

v. Menstruation is not a disease. Therefore, carry about your normal activities during your menstrual period. There are different brands of sanitary pad or towel in the market. These include "ladysept,"" lady-kept", cosy," "always simple", etc. choose the one that is most suitable to you.

Signs of Pre-menstruation

Signs of pre-menstrual syndrome includes:

i. Depression

ii. Irritability

iii. Weight gain

iv. Headaches   

v. Tenderness or heaviness of breast

vi.  Increase in acne

vii. Lower backache

viii. Abdominal cramps


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