Past Questions and Answers on Movement in Mammals



1. The following bones make up the axial skeleton except the
A.    Skull            
B.     Sternum             
C. Vertebral column  
D. Limb girdles

2. Muscles are indirectly attached to bones by means of
A. ligaments               
B. membranes       
C. tendons       
D. sutures

3.  Which of the following vertebrae lacks a centrum?
A. Atlas                   
B. Axis         
C. Thoracic           
D. Lumbar

4. The bone of the neck on which the skull rests is known as the
A. odontoid process        
B. occipital condyle    
C. atlas    
D. axis     

5.      The part labelled III is the
A. cartilage              
B. ligament  
C. synovial fluid      
D. bone

6.    The function of the part labelled I is to
A. secrete a fluid which lubricates the joint
B. attach muscles to the bones at the joint
C. bend the bones at the joint
D. hold the joint in place

7.  Which of the following is the correct order of the vertebrae along the spinal column?
A. Axis → atlas → thoracic → lumbar → cervical → sacral
B. Atlas → cervical → axis → thoracic → lumbar→ sacral
C. Atlas → axis → cervical → thoracic → lumbar → sacral
D. Axis → atlas → cervical → thoracic → sacral → lumbar

8.   During the bending of the arm, the biceps muscles
A. contracts and the triceps muscles relaxes
B. relaxes and the triceps muscles contracts
C. and the triceps muscles contract
D. and the triceps muscles relax

9.      A band of connectivity tissue linking two bones in a joint is known as
A. tendon             
B. cartilage    
C. synovial membrane          
D. ligament

10.  The appendicular skeleton is composed of the pectoral girdle
A. pelvic girdle, fore and hind limbs
B. pelvic girdle and fore limns
C. lumbar vertebrae and pelvic girdle
D. lumbar vertebrae, fore and hind limbs

11.      Which of the following is not a function of the mammalian skeleton?
A. Protection            
B. respiration     
C. Transportation       
D. Support

12. The organism that has a hydrostatic skeleton is 
A. Tilapia 
B. Hydra  
C. mosquito larva    
D. earthworm

Use the diagram to answer question 13        and 14

13.     The structure labelled II articulates with III to form

A. sliding joint     C. pivot joint
B. hinge joint       D. ball-and-socket joint
14.      Which of the bones is the radius?

A. I           B. II           C. III            D. IV

15.    The scapula and the ischium are part of the

A. pectoral girdle             C. pelvic girdle  
B. appendicular skeleton    D. hind limb

16.         The structure above represents
A. caudal vertebra     
B. lumbar vertebra 
C. thoracic vertebra   
D. cervical vertebra

17.     Blood vessel usually pass through the structure labelled
A. III       
B. II          
C. V          

18.        The presence of endoskeleton is characteristic of
A. invertebrate               
B. vertebrata            
C. insecta      
D. coelenterata

19.        exoskeleton is the type of supporting system found in
A. mammals              
B. reptiles           
C. oligochaetes       
D. arthropods
20.        A unique characteristic of the cervical vertebrate is the presence of
A. large centrum
B. long transverse processes
C. zygapophysis
D. vertebratarial canal


1. D

6. C

11. C

16. D

2. C

7. C

12. D

17. C

3. A

8. A

13. B

18. B

4. C

9. D

14. D

19. D

5. C

10. A

15. B

20. D


1.      (SSCE 1996) What is a skeleton?

(b) Name the main types of skeletons found in animals and for each type, give one example of animal in which it is found.

(c) What are the functions of the mammalian skeletons?

(d) Using a suitable example, discuss the role of skeletal joint in movement in mammals.


a) Refer to blog content

(d) Role of skeletal joint in movement

The role of skeleton joint in movement is to permit free movement without injury to the bones. Where two or more bones meet, there is a joint, with the bones held loosely together by muscles and ligaments. Articulating surfaces of the bones are covered with cartilage to prevent wearing of the bones. There is the synovial membrane in between the bones which secretes the synovial fluid which acts as a lubricant. Before movements occur in the forearm, there must be two muscles that are antagonistic and must have point of origin to an immovable bone and point of insertion to a movable bone. The forelimb has its biceps originating from the scapula and point of insertion on the radius. The triceps has its origin at the scapula and the head of the humerus and its point of insertion on the ulna. The arm is straightened when the triceps contracts and the biceps relaxes. When the biceps contracts and the triceps relaxes the lower arm is raised.

2.      (SSCE, 2000) (a) (i) Describe the girdles found mammalian skeleton.
(ii) Name the type of joint formed by the girdles with limbs.
(iii) Describe, without diagrams, the type of joint in one of the girdles you have named in (ii) above.

(b) How does one of the girdles in the mammal skeleton brings about movements.


(a) (i) Two girdles are the pectoral and pelvic

Refer to blog content

(ii) The two girdles form a ball and socket joint with the fore and hind limbs.

(iii) Ball and socket joint between femur and pelvic girdle or between humerus and pectoral girdles. The joint has surfaces covered with articular cartilage to prevent wearing off of the bones. The cartilage is flexible and acts as a cushion to absorb frictional forces when bones touch and rub. The two bones with the joint are separated by synovial membrane which enclose a synovial cavity and it secrets synovial fluid to lubricate the joint. There is capsular ligament that join bone to bone. The head of the limb bone such as femur and humerus fits into the socket of the girdle i.e. femur into the acetabulum and humerus into glenoid cavity.

(b) Movement of the pectoral girdle: the biceps (flexor and triceps (extensor) are antagonistic muscles, with both having their point of origin on the scapular and their point of insertion on the ulna and radius. When the bicep contracts, the lower arm is raised and when the triceps contracts the lower arm is straightened.

Movement of pelvic girdle: the two muscles involved are the extensor and flexor. Both have their points of origin on the pelvic girdle end point of insertion on the tibia and fibula. Contraction of the extensor muscles straightens the knee joint and legs moves backwards.

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