Past Questions and Answers on Life Processes of organisms



Use the following phyla to answer question 1 and 2

I.      Rhizopoda          
II.   Oomycota       
III. Ciliophora    
IV.  Chlorophyta

1.      Amoeba belongs to the phylum
A.    I   
B. II        
C. III          

2.      Which of the following pairs of phyla are closely related?
A.    I and II             
B.     I and III       
C. I and IV         
D. II and III

3. The type of reproduction found in rhizopus is
A.    fragmentation       
B.     binary           
C. budding        
D. spore formation

4.      Antheridium produces
A.    gemmae             
B.     ova               
C. sperms      
D. spores

5.The biological relationship between the bread and the blackish growth referred to
A.    Saprophytism       
B.     symbiosis      
C. commensalism      
D. parasitism

6.      Spirogyra reproduces sexually by
A.    copulation             
B.     fragmentation    
C. binary fission     
D. conjugation

7.      The locomotory structure in paramecium is
A.    cilium               
B.     cytoplasm     
C. flagellum      
D. pseudopodia

8. Which of the following differentiates Amoeba from other unicellular organisms? Presence of
A.    chloroplast        
B.     nuclei           
C. flagella       
D. pseudopodia

9.  Euglena may be considered as animal because it possesses
A.    flagellum          
B.     pyrenoid        
C. nucleus      
D. vacuole

10.  Moulds belong to phylum
A.    Ascomycota          
B.     Basidiomycota     
C.  Oomycota 
D.  Zygomycota

11.  Rhizopus has heterotrophic mode of nutrition because it
A. lives and land
B. possesses hyphae
C. has chitin in its wall
D. lack chlorophyll

12.  Which of the following is not true of Rhizopus/Mucor?
A.    it sensitive to temperature
B.     it can manufacture its own food
C. it undergoes asexual and sexual reproduction
D.    it bears spores contain in sporangia

13.  Which of the following organisms is multicellular in structure?
A.    Paramecium           
B.     Amoeba        
C. Spirogyra         
D. Euglena

14. Which of the following structures present in euglena is also present in a typical plant cell?
A.    Contractile vacuole   
B.     Flagellum            
C. Pellicle           
C. Pellicle 
D. Chloroplast

15.  Amoeba can be found in all the following habitat except
A.    Damp soils              
B.     Muddy ponds     
C. ditches     
D. lagoons

16.  Regulation of body fluids in Amoeba is carried out by the
A.    Plasmagel        
B.     Pseudopodium    
C. contractile vacuole
D. cytoplasm

17.  Alternation of generation occurs in
A.      Euglena          
B.      Rhizopus   
C. Crotalia     
D. Funaria

18.  Which of the following is not performed by both spirogyra and Rhizopus?
A.    Respiration            
B.     Photosynthesis   
C. conjugation   
D. nutrition

19.  Fungi do not make their own food because
A.    food is absorbed through the mycelia
B.     fungi grow on dead organic matter
C.     fungi lack chlorophyll
D.    fungi may assist in the decay of food

20.  The archegonium produces
A.    antherozoids      
B.     germma       
C. oospheres     
D. spores


1. A   


11. D     

16. C   

2. B    


12. B  

17. D     


8. D    

13. C  

18. B  



14. D  

19. C  



15. D  

20. C  


1.       (SSCE, 1993 Q2) (b) Describe the life of a moss plant.

2.  (SSCE, 1994) (a) List any three feature that make euglena an animal. 


Eye spot            
Contractile vacuole       
Body covered with pellicle

3. (SSCE 2001) (a) (i). With the aid of a labeled diagram, describe the structure of euglena. 
(ii) State two animal-like features of euglena.

(b)(i). Describe conjugation in spirogyra.
(ii) What is the advantage of conjugation of spirogyra?

Refer to blog content for solution

(iii) Advantage
1. Gametes are protected as they are not exposed to the environment. 
2. Zygotes are protect
3. Bring about recombination

4.       (WASSCE, 2006 Q5) Outline the life cycle of a named bryophytes

Refer to blog content

5.  (WASSCE, 2008 Q1) (c) Explain the process of osmoregulation in Amoeba.

(c) Osmoregulation in Amoeba
The cell membrane is semi permeable and water flows into the cell by osmosis. The contractile vacuole removes the water which diffuses into the organism. It then contracts expelling the liquid in it into the surrounding water. This process regulates the amount of water present in the cytoplasm.

6.       (WASSCE, 2008 Q5) (a) Describe the life cycle of fern.

The life cycle of a fern consists of two alternating generation i.e. the sporophytes and the gametophyte. The sporophyte is dominant and diploid and produces spores in sporangia borne on the leaves. The spores are haploid. The spores germinate into prothallus, which constitutes the gametophytes. The gametophytes are an independent haploid plant, and bears both male and female sex organs i.e., antheridia and archegonia. The antheridium produces many antherozoids which are flagellated. The archegonium produces only one oosphere (egg). The antherozoids swim and enter archegonium. It fuses with the egg to form a zygote, which remains in archegonium and develops into a new sporophyte. The sporophyte initially depends on the prothallus for nourishment.

7.       (WASSCE, 2014) (i) Name one organism that exhibits both plant and animal features
(ii) State four animal features and two plant features possessed by the organism named in (c) (i) above.

(i) Euglena or Chlamydomonas
(ii) Refer to blog content

8.        (WASSCE, 2014) State two reasons why bryophytes are confined to damp habitat.

(ii) Named three organisms that reproduced conjugation


Sexual reproduction of bryophytes requires water or moisture through which the male gamete swims to the female gamete. 

They do not have true roots to absorb minerals and water and therefore, absorb water all over their body surface by simple diffusion and osmosis. 

The plant surface lacks a cuticle which enables it to absorb water through its surface.

They are non-vascular; hence they have direct contact with water.

(ii) Organisms reproduce by conjugation

Paramecium, Zygonema, Chlamydomonas, spirogyra, Rhizopus/mucor



1.  One of the following arrangements is correct about stages of development in insects.

A.    Egg……..larva…….pupa……
B.     Egg…….pupa……..larva……
C.     Egg…….adult……..pupa……...larva
D.    Egg…….pupa……………larva

2. Plates of cockroach completely covered by wings at rest are the
A.    sterna            
B.     pleura         
C. elytra      
D. terga

3.      A characteristic feature of insects which jump is the possession of
A.    membranous hind wings
B.     stout and powerful hind limb
C.     additional anal appendages
D.    long slender hind limbs

4.      The caterpillar is attached to the silk pad by
A.    true legs           
B.     prolegs        
C. silk girdle       
D. claspers

5.      In weevils, the scape is found at the end of the
A.    rostrum            
B.     walking         
C. antenna     
D. elytra

6. The arthropods like insect possesses an exoskeleton made of nitrogenous polysaccharide called
A.    antennae          
B.     maxillary palp   
C. chitin  
D. ommatidia 

7.      The following are social insects except
A.    wasps            
B.     termites   
C. cotton stainer     
D. bees

8.      A life cycle consisting of a developmental transformation of forms which take place between larval and adult forms of arthropods and amphibians is called
A.  Ecdysis        
B.  Moulting   
C. Metamorphosis     
D. Palpation

9.      Which of the following developmental stages is not present in complete metamorphosis?
A.    imago           
B.     larva      
C. nymph       
D. pupa

10.      Members of the Diptera possess
A.    Soft bodies, biting mouthparts and two pairs of membranous wings
B.     Halters, piercing mouthparts and a pair of membranous wings
C.  Constricted abdomen, sucking mouthparts and vein wings
D. Cerci, biting mouthparts and leathery wings

11.  The following activities are behavioral characteristic of termites except
A.    Aestivation       
B.     Burrowing   
C. Communication     
D. Searching for food

12.  Honey bee worker carries out one the following functions except
A.    laying of eggs   
B.     building nest   
C. cleaning of nest  
D. gathering of food

13.  the vector of malaria parasites is the
A.    male anopheles    
B.     female culex    
C. male culex    
D. female anopheles

14.  What is the significance of bee dance to other bees?
A.    Warning signal  
B.     mating signal by male
C.     Presence of food   
D.    time for nuptial flight

15.  In which of the following organism belong to order lepidoptera?
A. butterfly                 
B. Lizard           
C. Bird         
D. Cockroach

16.  Which of the following insects undergoes incomplete metamorphosis?
A. Mosquito            
B. Termite      
C. Housefly           
D. Moth

17.  The excretory organ in insects is the
A. kidney                         
B. malpighian tubule     
C. flame cell    
D. nephridium

18.  The butterfly is of great economic importance because
A. of its use in scientific studies
B. it sucks nectar from flowers
C. it adds to the beauty of the environment
D. it pollinates flowers of crops and other plants

19.  Which of the following insects lays its eggs in horny, purse-like cases?
A. Mosquito           
B. Butterfly      
C. Termite      
D. Cockroach

20.  The group of insects that undergoes complete metamorphosis is
A. houseflies, beetles and cockroaches
B. cockroaches, grasshoppers and bees
C. houseflies, beetles and butterflies
D. aphids, grasshopper and butterflies

21.  The ability of the cockroach to live in cracks and crevices is enhanced by the possession of
A. wings and segmented body
B. compound eyes
C. claws on the leg
D. dorso-ventrally flattened body

22.  The caste of termites that lacks pigmentation is the
A. King                   
B. worker         
C. soldier         
D. queen

23.  In the honey bee colony, the drones are
A. sterile males with reduced mouth parts
B. sterile males with well-developed mouth parts
C. fertile males with reduced mouth parts
D. fertile males with well-developed mouth parts

24.  The group of insects that have mouth parts adapted for both piercing and sucking is
A. cockroach, aphids and mosquitoes
B. aphids, houseflies and moths
C. mosquitoes, tsetse flies and aphids
D. aphids, beetles and grasshoppers

Study the diagram below and use it to answer questions 25 and 26

25.  The structure labelled II is used for
A. tasting            
B. feeling     
C. biting         
D. sucking

26.  The structure labelled III represents the
A. mandible               
B. palp        
C. proboscis               
D. labium

27.    The jointed structure in insects that bears organs which are sensitive to touch, smell and vibration is the
A. maxilla              
B. labium          
C. antenna         
D. abdomen

28.    A feature of the caste system of bees and termites is that
A. the workers are sterile
B. the kings are bigger than the queens
C. only the workers perform duties
D. nuptial flight is performed by all members

29.    An insect whose economic importance is both harmful and beneficial is the
A. Tsetsefly           
B. Blackfly        
C. Mosquito        
D. Butterfly

30.    An insect with a mandibulate mouth part will obtain its food by
A. biting and chewing           
B. chewing and sucking      
C. chewing    
D. sucking



1. A 

7. C  

13. D  

19. D

25. B

2. D   

8. C  

14. C    

20. C

26. C

3. D   

9. C  

15. A

21. D

27. C

 4. D  

10. B  

16. B

22. B

28. A

5. C   

11. A  

17. B

23. C

29. D

6. C  

12. A  

18. D

24. C

30. A



1.     (SSCE, 1993 Q1) (b) Describe the life cycle of 

(i) Cockroach


(i) The life cycle of cockroach shows an incomplete metamorphosis. During mating the male produced sperms and discharged them into the female through the genital pore. The sperms are stored in the sperm pouch of the female. The sperms fertilize the eggs inside the female (internal fertilization). The fertilized are enclosed in an egg case called ootheca. The female carries the ootheca in her genital pouch for some time and later deposited in a dark, warm place or in cracks. After six weeks, the eggs hatch into young, colorless, and wingless cockroaches called Nymphs. The nymphs feed and develop into the adult.

2.      (SSCE, 1993 Q5) (a) Describe the caste system in termites.

(b) Discuss the economic importance of the following insects:

(i) Weevils             

(ii) Cotton Stainer

(c) How can weevils be controlled.


(a) & (b) Refer to blog content

3.      (SSCE 1998 Q6) Consider the following insects:

(i)     termites                 

(ii)  cotton strainers

(a) Give the economic importance of each of them.

(ii) Explain two control measures used against each of them.


Refer to blog content

4.   (SSCE, 2000) Explain briefly the following terms:

(i) ecdysis           

(ii) complete metamorphosis

(iii)  incomplete metamorphosis

(b) (i) What are the essential features of stages of the cycle of an insect with complete metamorphosis

(ii) Explain briefly how the life cycle in complete metamorphosis differs from that of incomplete metamorphosis.

(iii) indicate the stages in life cycle of the butterfly which are of economic importance, giving one reason for each stage. 


(i) Ecdysis is the periodic shedding of the exoskeleton of an arthropod to enable growth to take place.

(ii) & (iii) Refer to blog content  

(b) (i) it involves definite developmental stages such as eggs, larva, pupa and imago (adult). The eggs contain the fertilized ovum which develops into the larva. The larva is an active feeding and growing stage. The pupa is outstandingly inactive but with a lot of reorganization taking place internally, which leads to the formation of adult structures inside. The adult is sexually matured organism and dispersal stages are distinctive in all aspects such as morphology, physiology and in behaviors.

(ii) The stages after hatching are distinct in complete metamorphosis, but similar except in size in incomplete metamorphosis. Changes in development stages are fast in complete metamorphosis but gradual in incomplete metamorphosis. The young individuals and adults have different diets in complete metamorphosis but the diet is similar in complete metamorphosis. The dominant stage in complete metamorphosis is the pupal stage, which is absent in incomplete metamorphosis. Adult and young differ in habitat in complete metamorphosis but in incomplete metamorphosis the habitat is the same. Young and adult differ in behavior in complete metamorphosis, however, behavior is the same in incomplete metamorphosis. 

(iii) The larva stage feed on leaves i.e., it defoliates plants. The adults also pollinate flowers, thereby in some cases destroy the citrus as they suck the nectar.

5.      (SSCE, 2002 Q3) Describe the

(a) external features of the different members of the termite colony

(b) mode of life of termites


(a) Refer to blog content

(b) Mode of life of termites

Termites are social insects. They live together in a colony where there is division of labor. A colony consists workers, soldiers, and winged reproductive. Workers are completely blind, wingless, and sexually immature. They feed other members, dig tunnels, locate food and build and repair the nest.

Soldier termites defend the colony against invaders.

Reproductives are the sexual forms of a colony. They go on nuptial flight, and become the king or queen termites of their newly-established colony. The queen duty is to lay eggs and king fertilizes the eggs

6.      (SSCE, 2004 Q2) (a) State the type of life cycle exhibited by each of the following organisms:

(i) Termite    (ii) Butterfly      (iii) Moss

(b) (i) Describe the mode of life of termites

(ii) State five ways in which termites are of economic importance.


(a) (i) incomplete metamorphosis(ii) Complete metamorphosis

(iii) Alternation of generation

(b) Refer to blog content

7.  (SSCE, 2008) (a) List three external features common to all arthropods.

(ii) List three characteristics features of insects

(b) (i) Describe the structure of soldier termite.

(ii) State one function of each of the members of the various termite castes.

(c) (i) What are social insects?

(ii) State three common features of social insects.

(a) (i) External features of arthropods
1. Jointed appendages
2.  Exoskeleton made of chitin

·        Segmented body

(ii) Characteristics features of insects

1. Three body division (head, thorax and abdomen)

2. Thorax made up of prothorax, mesothorax and metathorax

3. Three pairs of legs

4. Pair antennae

5. Most with wings

(b) (i) & (c)  Refer to blog content

8.        (WASSCE 2014) (i) State two beneficial and one harmful effect of bees to humans


(i) Beneficial effects of bees

1. Production of honey

2. Production of wax

3. Agent of pollination (in crop production)

(ii) Harmful effects of bees

1. Stings humans (leading to death)  

2. Constitutes nuisance/invade houses/ communities




1.      Which of the following external features found only in lizards?

A. nostril             C. tail

B. scaly skin       D. nuchal crest

2.      Which of the following characteristics show that reptiles are more advanced than amphibians?

A.    Possession of pigment skin

B.     Laying shelled eggs

C.     Possession of homodont teeth

D.    Possession of vertebral column

3.      The excretion of uric acid is an adaptation for conservation of

A.    energy            C. heat

B.     salt                 D. water

4.      The main nutrition exhibited by lizard is

             A.      insectivorous     C. commensalism

              B.      omnivorous       D. herbivore

5.      Which of the following fins provides the major force which drives a fish forward?

             A.      caudal fin        C. ventral

              B.      pectoral fin     D. pelvic

6.      The following are all functions of the jelly surrounding the egg of a toad except

          A.      provide food for the embryo

           B.      prevents overcrowding

           C.      enable eggs to float

          D.      protects eggs from infection

7.      The membrane that protects the outer surface of the eye ball of a bird

          A.      tympanic

           B.      plasma membrane

           C.      nuclear membrane

          D.      nictitating membrane

8.      Fishes cannot survive on land because it has

A.    a streamlined body   C. no lungs     

B.     scales                     D. no external ear  

9.      Which of the following is not true about lateral line in Tilapia?

A.    It runs down side of the body

B.     It aids swimming movement

C.     It opens to the water via tiny hole

D.    It contains cells which pick up vibrations

10.  All the following aid flight in birds except

A.    Down feathers       C. Hollow bones

B.     Streamline shape   D. Quill feathers

11.  The toad makes use of the following parts for respiration when on land

A.    Mouth and lungs    C. Skin and lungs

B.     Lungs and nostril  D. Mouth and skin

12.  One of the following is a paired fin in a bony fish

A.    Pelvic fin       C. Caudal fin

B.     Dorsal fin      D. Ventral fin

13.  The significance of croaking in toad is to

A.    Attack is enemies

B.     Attract the female for mating

C.     Make use of poisonous glands

D.    Feed on insects

14.  All the following are the similarities between the Tilapia and Tadpole except

A.    Both have streamline body shape

B.     Both possess tails

C.     Both possess gills for respiration

D.    Both have lateral lines

15.  All the following are associated with the movement of Tilapia except

A.    Rolling             C. Pitching

B.     Yawing             D. Tenting

16.  Which of the following organism is considered as the most evolutionary advanced?

A.    Toad                     C. Lizard

B.     Domestic fowl      D. Cheetah

17.  One of the following is not a feature of reptiles

A.    Possess dry skin covered with scales

B.     Possess two pairs of limbs which ends in clawed digit

C.     Dentition is homodont

D.    Lay unshelled eggs that fertilized externally in water

18.  A flying bird is able to move through the air with least frictional resistance because of its

A.    feathers             C. streamlined shape

B.     small head        D. wings 

19.  Cold-blooded vertebrates that spend part of their life cycle in water and part in on land but return to water to reproduce belong to class

A.    Reptilian                 C. Amphibia

B.     Mammalia             D. Pisces

20.  A feature which adapts birds to flight is the possession of

A. scaly legs           C. two walking legs

B. light bones         D. a pointed beak

21.  The gill rakers of fishes take part in

A. respiration         C. swimming

B. feeding              D. diffusion

22.  Gaseous exchange in Aves occurs in the

A. tracheoles             C. air sacs

B. bronchi                 D. trachea

23.  The bright colours of the comb and feathers in the peacock are for

A. sex differentiation          C. courtship

B. beauty                              D. defense

24.  Which of the following vertebrates does the skin function as a respiratory surface?

A. Rat                    C. Fish

B. Lizard               D. Frog

25.  Cutaneous respiration is carried out by

A.    Birds            C. Snakes           

B.     Frog             D. Fishes

26.  Scales on reptiles are a feature for

A. conserving water

B. conserving food

C. protecting the skin

D. locomotion

27.  The colour of the ventral surface of a fish is lighter than that of the dorsal. This is mainly

A. an adaptation for movement

B. an adaptation for camouflage

C. for attracting mates

D. for regulating body temperature

28.  The structure that prevents food particle from escaping through the fish gills are called gill

A. arches                      C. rakers

B. filaments                 D. lamellae

29.  The possession of scales, laying of eggs with shells and bony structure of the head are characteristics shared by

A. birds and reptiles  

B. fishes and birds   

C. reptiles and fishes

D. birds and mollusks

30.  In a group of male Agama lizards, the one with the brightest head colour is the

A. dominant          C. oldest

B. youngest           D. largest


1. D  

7. D  

13. B  

19. C  

25. B

2. B   

8. C   

14. D

 20. B

26. C

3. D   

9. B   

15. D  

21. B

27. B

4. A  

10. A 

16. C  

22. C

28. C

5. A  

11. A  

17. D  

23. C

29. A

6. A   

12. A 

18. C 

24. D

30. A


1.      (SSCE, 1994 Q2) (i) In which way is fertilization in a toad different from that in mammals

(ii) List the advantages of fertilization found in mammals.


(i)        Fertilization in toads is external while that of mammal is internal.

(ii)     Advantages on internal fertilization

v  The mother’s circulation system removes excretory products of the embryo.

v  Embryo obtains oxygen and nutrients from the mother.

v  The embryo is protected from shock by the amniotic fluid

v  There is high probability of fertilization.

v  The embryo is free from external dangers.

2.      (SSCE, 1996 Q4) Discuss the gaseous exchange in

(i) Osteichthyes          (ii) Amphibian


Gaseous exchange in Osteichthyes

During gaseous exchange, the mouth opens to take in water containing dissolved oxygen, whiles the operculum is pressed to the head. The mouth is then closed. The floor of the buccal cavity and pharynx are raised and the opercula are open as water is forced over the gills. As water flow past the gill filaments, oxygen diffuses into the blood and carbon dioxide diffuses out.

Gaseous exchange in Amphibians

When at rest on land, amphibians take in large volume of air into the mouth and uses the floor of the buccal cavity to press the air against the lining of the mouth. Gaseous exchange occurs through the mucus lining of the buccal cavity. This is called buccal respiration.

In water, exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide take place between the water and capillaries of the skin by diffusion. This is referred to as cutaneous respiration.

When active amphibians use the lung in respiration. The mouth is closed and the floor of the buccal cavity is lowered. The toad draws air in through its nostrils and pumps it into the lungs by raising the floor of the mouth. Gaseous exchange takes place in the lungs. This type, is describe as pulmonary respiration.

3.      (SSCE, 2001 Q4) (a) (i) State five characteristic features of reptiles

(ii) State three structural features that distinguish amphibians from reptiles.

   (b) How are the limbs of a toad adapted for movement?

    (c) (i) State the various ways by which gaseous exchange takes place in toad

 (ii) Give two features common to the structures used during gaseous exchange.


(a)   (i)    ●    presence of homodont dentition

·         Body covered with scales

·         Lay soft-shelled eggs

·         Absence of external ear

·         Limbs have clawed digits

·         Presence of two pairs of limbs

(ii) Hind limb digits are webbed, skin is moist, and jaws do not contain teeth.

(b)   Hind limbs are webbed providing large surface area to push against water when swimming. They are longer and more muscular to lift the body off ground when hopping and are used for crawling on land. Forelimbs are short and stout to keep the front part of the body raised above the ground when at rest, and to absorb the shock of land after hopping.

(c)   (i)    ●   buccal (mouth) respiration

·         Pulmonary (lung) respiration

·         Cutaneous(skin) respiration


¨      Large surface area,

¨      moist surface,

¨      thin surface area and highly vascularized   

4.      (SSCE, 2005 Q4) (a) With the aid of a labeled diagram 8-10 cm long, describe the external features of tilapia

(b) How does Tilapia get rid of its excretory products?


(a) External features of tilapia

Tilapia has a streamlined body shape, covered with flattened, discoid overlapping scales. The mouth is terminal with a pair of nostrils above. It has operculum at each side of the head. The lateral line is present each side of the fish, that runs along behind the head to the tail. There are three single or unpaired fins. These are the dorsal fin, the anal fin and the caudal or tail fin. The paired fins are the pectoral fins and the pelvic fins.

(b) Nitrogenous waste substances, excess salts and water are excreted by the kidney in urine. Carbon dioxide is excreted by diffusion out of the body through the gills.

5.      (SSCE, 2009 Q5) (a)(i) What are amphibians?

(i)   Give two examples of amphibian

(b) Explain why a named amphibian is considered successful in its mode of

(i) Respiration       

(ii) Reproduction

(c) (i) List two external features of birds (ii) State how the features named in (c) (i) above adapts the bird to flight.


(a) Amphibians: these are cold-blooded animals which spend part of their life in water and on land.

(ii) Toad, frog, salamanders, newts

(b) Frog:

Respiration in a named amphibian

At larval stage tadpoles, possess vascularized gills for gaseous exchange in water. At adult stage, the moist thin skin allows dissolved oxygen to diffuse into the capillaries when in water, while on land the atmospheric oxygen diffuse into the vascularized lungs to the surroundings. Also in the buccal cavity, gaseous exchange occurs through the blood capillaries lining the floor of the buccal cavity. The position of the nostril above the mouth, enables the passage of atmospheric air into the body while swimming.

(ii) Reproduction in a named amphibian

The male mounts on the back of a female, gripping her under the arms with his forelegs. When she lays the eggs the male releases sperms to fertilize them. This ensures external fertilization and prevent wastage of sperms. The eggs are surrounded by a layer of jelly, which protects the eggs from mechanical injury, prevent drying up, protects the egg from bacterial infection, being eaten by predators, enables the eggs to float on the water surface, prevent overcrowding of eggs/allows room for development/better circulation of air.

(c) External feature of birds

v  A pair of eyes

v  Has streamlined body shape

v  Presence of feathers

v  Presence of beak

v  A pair of well-developed wings

v  A pair of scaled hind limbs

v  Presence of digit with claws

v  Presence of tail features

(ii) Features of adaptation of birds to flight

 Refer to blog content



Click Here for WAEC Past Questions and Answers


Post a Comment