Past Questions and Answers on Internal Structures of Roots, Stem and Leaves



The diagram X and Y below, represent the transverse section of a plant organ in two different types of plants.

Use them to answer question 1 & 2 

1.      Which of the following statement is not true?

A. X and Y are sections of the root

B. X and Y are sections of dicot and monocot root respectively

C. X and Y have vascular bundles

D. X and Y sections of the stem

2.      Which of the numbered parts is responsible for conducting water and minerals salts from the soil to the leaves?

A. 1         B. 2          C. 3            D. 4

3.      In dicotyledonous stem, each companion cell is founded beside the

A. endodermal cell    C. sieve tube

B. xylem vessel         D. pericyclic fibre

4.      Which type of the following cells is thin-walled and living at maturity?

A. Collenchyma        C. xylem vessel

B. Sieve tube             D. sclerenchyma

5.      A wide pith with a ring of conducting tissue is characteristic of the root of

A. sunflower         C. bean

B. maize                D. okra

6.      The major site of photosynthesis in the leaf is the

A. palisade parenchyma

B. mesophyll parenchyma

C. upper epidermis

D. lower epidermis

7.      During respiration, air circulates round plant tissues via the

A. lenticels               C. guard cells

B. stomata                D. intercellular spaces

8.      Which of the following is the youngest plant tissue?

A. Meristem             C. Epidermis

B. Phloem                D. Xylem

9.      The companion cells are part of the

A. pericycle                C. pith

B. phloem                   D. xylem

10.  Which of the following structures is capable of producing more tissues in the stem of a herbaceous flowering plant?

A. Epidermis                   C. Xylem

B. Pericycle                    D. Cambium

11.    Which of the following features are all associate with monocots?

A. Fibrous root system, branched network of veins and one seed leaf

B. Fibrous root system, two seed leaves and floral parts in threes

C. One seed leaf, petals in threes or group of threes and parallel venation of leaves

D. One seed leaf, net-veined leaves and petals in threes or multiple of three

12.    Peripherals arrangement of vascular tissues in dicots is a characteristic of the internal structure of the

A. leaf                         C. stem

B. petiole                    D. root

13.    Most monocots are easily recognized by their

A. short leaves with petioles

B. long and sword-like leaves

C. long and palm like leaves

D. short with veinlets

14.    The veins of the leaf are formed by the

A. vascular bundles        C. palisade tissue

B. cambium cells     D. spongy mesophyll

15.    In the internal structure of plants, a wide pith in the centre is common to

A. dicot stems and monocot stems

B. dicot stem and monocot roots

C. dicot roots and monocot roots

D. dicot roots and monocot stem

16.    In the root vascular system, the stele is directly surrounded by the

A. pericycle                 C. endodermis

B. cortex                      D. parenchyma

17.    In the transverse of a dicotyledonous stem, the region lying between the endodermis and the vascular bundle is the

A. parenchyma          C. phloem

B. pericycle               D. hypodermis

18.    Monocot stem differ from dicot stems in that monocot have

A. no cambium   C. fewer vascular bundle

B. no pit    D. phloem with parenchyma

19.    In a dicotyledonous stem, the zone between the epidermis and the pericycle is the

A. cortex               C. xylem

B. stele                  D. phloem

20.    In plants, the structures that play roles similar to the arteries and veins of animals are the

A. xylem and phloem

B. root hair and xylem

C. lenticels and phloem

D. roots and stems


1. D

6. A

11. C

16. C

2. A

7. D

12. C

17. C

3. C

8. A

13. C

18. D

4. A

9. B

14. A

19. A

5. B

10. D

15. A

20. A


1.      (SSCE, 1998 Q2) Describe a named plant tissue that serves for transport.


Xylem and phloem; Refer to blog content

2.      (SSCE, 2002 Q5) (a) Draw and label a diagram of the transverse section of a dicotyledonous leaf as seen under the low power of the microscope. (Presentation of cells not required).

(b) (i) Describe the structure of the epidermis of a dicotyledonous leaf as seen under the high power of a microscope.

(ii) Relate the structural of the epidermis to its functions. 

Ø  The cuticle prevents water loss.

Ø  The tightly packed cells protects the internal tissues from injury.

Ø  The stomata allows for gaseous exchange and guard containing chloroplast, carry out photosynthesis as well as controlling opening and closing of the stoma.

Ø  It is transparent which allows light to reach the mesophyll tissue for photosynthesis.



3.       (SSCE 2003 Q4) (a) Draw and label a diagram of the transverse section of a dicotyledonous leaf.


Refer to blog content

4.      (SSCE 2005 Q3) (a) Name the four primary tissues of the stem of a dicotyledonous plant.

(b) Describe the structure of each of the tissues you have named in (a) as seen in transverse section.


(a) primary tissues of dicotyledonous stem

·         Epidermis                ●   Cortex

·         Vascular tissues       ●   Pith

(b)Refer to blog content

5.      (SSCE 2008 Q5) (b) In a tabular form, state six vegetative difference between dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plant.


Refer to blog content

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