WAEC/ SSCE/ WASSCE/ NOVDEC Past Questions and Answers on Control and Co-ordination



1. A fundamental similarity between nervous and hormonal system is that both
A. involve chemical transmission
B. have widespread effects
C. shed chemicals into the blood stream
D. evoke rapid responses

2. The region that control most of the unconscious processes of a mammalian body is the
A. cerebellum        
B. cerebrum      
C. spinal cord       
D. medulla oblongata

3.   The part of the ear that is concerned with balance is the
A. semi-circular canals       
B. incus              
C. malleus         
D. Eustachian tube

4.  Neurons that receive stimuli from the body or internal organs are called
A. sensory neurons      
B. efferent neurons  
C. motor neurones     
D. relay neurones

5.      In the mammal, the autonomic nervous system consists of
A. sympathetic and parasympathetic system
B. brain and spinal nerves
C. brain and cranial nerves
D. spinal cord and spinal nerves

6. Which path does sound entering the human ear follow?
A. Oval window → ossicles → ear drum
B. Ear drum → oval window → ossicles
C. Ear drum → ossicles → oval window
D. Ossicles → ear drum → oval window

7.    The mammalian organ which acts both as a digestive and as an endocrine organ is the
A. oesophagus             
B. liver             
C. pancreas           
D. spleen

8. The process of walking is under the control of the part of the brain called
A. optic lobe                     
B. olfactory lobe    
C. cerebellum 
D. medulla oblongata

9.  The gland directly affecting metabolic rate, growth and development is known as
A. adrenal gland          
B. thyroid gland       
C. mammary gland 
D. parathyroid gland

10.  Which of the following ions is involved in the conduction of the nerve impulse?
A. Ca2+       
B. K+        
C. H+         
D. Mg2+

11.  The part of the brain that regulates most biological cycles in humans is
A. olfactory lobe     
B. optic lobe     
C. medulla oblongata      
D. pineal body

12.  The ability of the eye to focus on both near and distant objects is termed
A. image formation        
B. refraction          
C. hypermetropia        
D. accommodation

13.  The small masses of nervous tissues in which many neurones have their nuclei are called
A. dorsal roots             
B. ventral roots         
C. ganglia     
D. synapses

14.    The part of the brain that controls body posture in mammals is the
A. thalamus               
B. cerebellum        
C. spinal cord      
D. cerebrum

15.    Short-sightedness can be corrected by lenses which are
A. convex                
B. biconvex               
C. plano-convex      
D. concave

16.    The inner ear contains two main organs, namely, the
A. eardrum and eustachian tube
B. cochlea and semi-circular canals
C. oval window and ossicles
D. pinna and cochlea

17.    The center for learning and memory in the human brain is the
A. medulla oblongata  
B. cerebellum          
C. cerebrum        
D. olfactory lobe

18.    The gland usually found in the position labelled I is the
A. adrenal                 
B. thyroid           
C. pancreatic      
D. pituitary   

19.     The structure can be found in the
A. Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
B. Peripheral and central nervous system
C. Peripheral nervous system only
D. Central nervous system only

20.        The point marked I is referred to as
A. myelin sheath        
B. dendrites         
C. axon       
D. none of Ranvier


1. D

6. C

11. C

16. C

2. C

7. C

12. D

17. C

3. A

8. C

13. C

18. D

4. A

9. B

14. D

19. B

5. A

10. B

15. D

20. C


1.      (SSCE, 1993 Q1) (b) With the aid of a labeled diagram describe the structure of a motor neuron of a mammal.


A motor neuron consists of the cell body and the Axon. The cell body has a large nucleus embedded in dense cytoplasm containing Nissl granules. Extending from it are dendrons which branch into dendrites. An extended part (axon) transmits nerve impulses. Surrounding and insulting the axon is a fatty sheath covered by the neuilemma. The myelin sheath is not continuous but has gaps in it called the nodes of Ranvier. The terminal region of the axon is broken up into many fine branches with swollen end plates, which communicates with adjacent neurons through synapse

2.      (SSCE 1995) (a) Describe the structure of the mammalian eye, indicating the functions of various part.

(b) Describe one type of eye defect and how it can be corrected.

Refer to blog content
N/B: A diagram of vertical section through the eye
(b) Eye defect; Refer to blog contents

2.      (SSCE 1999 Q7) (a) Explain the term voluntary action
(b) (i) Describe a reflex arc
(ii) How does the reflex arc function?

(c) How does the human ear functions as a hearing organ?

(a) Voluntary Action is activity of the body initiated under the direct control of the brain and can therefore be suppressed. E.g. walking, speaking writing.

(b) (i) Reflex arc is the pathway along which impulse travels during reflex action. The reflex arc has five basic components: sensory receptor, sensory neuron, an interneuron, motor neuron and an effector organ.

Refer to blog content for reflex arc diagram

(ii) A sensory nerve ending receives stimulus and an impulse is transmitted by sensory neuron from the receptor to the spinal cord through the dorsal root. The intermediate neuron receives impulses from the sensory neuron and passes them to the motor neuron. The motor neuron then sends impulses out of the spinal cord via the ventral root to an effector organ (muscle or gland) where a quick response is produced. All the neurons are linked by synapses across which impulses are sent.

(c) Mechanism of hearing (Refer to notes)

3.    (SSCE 2001 Q6) (a) (i) describe the structure of the following parts of the mammalian eye:
(α) sclerotic layer  
(β) choroids 
(γ) retina

(ii) State the functions of the parts of the mammalian eye listed in (i) above.

(b) (i) What is short sight?
(ii) What causes short sightedness?
(iii) How is short sightedness corrected

Refer to blog content

4.      (SSCE 2003 Q4) (a) Explain the term co-ordination in mammals

(b) Name the system that bring about co-ordination

(c) State the main parts of nervous system of mammals

(d) With the aid of diagram, describe the structure of a motor neuron of a mammal.

(a), (b) & (c) Refer to blog content
(d) Refer to blog content

5.      (WASSCE 2007 Q1) (a) Describe the structure of the mammalian ear

(b) Name the parts responsible for
(i) hearing          (ii) maintaining balance

(c) Describe the mechanism by which the ear helps to maintain balance in mammals

(a) Refer to blog content

(a)   Hearing: cochlea

Balance: semi-circular canals

(c) Refer to blog content

6. (WASSCE 2009) (a)(i). make a large diagram 10-12cm long of a vertical section of the mammalian eye and label it fully

(ii) State one function each of five of the labelled parts

(b)(i) Describe the eye defect of short sightedness (ii) State how the defect can be corrected


Refer to blog content

7. (WASSCE 2013 Q1) (a)(i) What is endocrine glands?

(i)   Name three endocrine glands that are associated with reproduction in human males.

(ii)  . name one hormone produced by each of the glands named in (a)(ii) above.

(iii)  State two general characteristics of hormones

(b) (i) What is the autonomic nervous system (ANS)?

(ii) Name the two types of nerves that form the ANS

(b)   State (i) the type of action that are controlled by ANS;

(ii) three examples of such actions.


Refer to blog content

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